1. Argentina 34.84 (1991) 0.81 (1995)
2. Australia 53.59 (1986) 4.16 (1996)
3. Austria 21.57 (1981) 2.44 (1993)
4. Brazil 11.23 (1981) * 0.23 (1995)
5. Canada 180.66 (1986) 2.70 (1995) *
6. China 8.36 (1988) 0.46 (1996) *
7. Cuba 14.36 (1981) * 2.73 (1995)
8. Czech Republic ... 1.20 (1997) *
9. Denmark 97.78 (1991) 3.26 (1998) *
10. Egypt ... 0.80 (1991)
11 Germany 85.12 (1989) 2.83 (1995) *
12. France ... 2.66 (1996) *
13. Guyana 1.28 (1982) * 0.35 (1982)
14. Hungary 49.94 (1990) 1.10 (1997) *
15. India 7.27 (1999) 0.10 (1998)
16. Indonesia 3.50 (1991) * 0.18 (1988) *
17. Israel 82.54 (1984) 5.86 (1984)
18. Italy 83.34 (1981) 1.32 (1995) *
19. Japan 112.77 (1987) 7.14 (1996) *
20. Republic of Korea 53.13 (1981) @ 2.19 (1996) *
21. Nigeria 1.41 (1980) 0.09 (1987)
22. Pakistan 4.08 (1990) 0.09 (1997)
23. Philippines 36.65 (1980) * 0.18 (1992)
24. Singapore 26.58 (1980) 2.62 (1995)
25. Spain 44.90 (1990) 1.31 (1996) *
26. Sweden 113.63 (1992) 3.83 (1995) *
27. U.K. 89.53 (1991) 2.45 (1996) *
28. U.S.A. 21.15 (1988) * 3.68 (1993) *
29. Russian Federation 139.16 (1989) 4.20 (1997)
30. Venezuela 107.82 (1991) 0.24 (1992)
Source : UNESCO Statistical Year Book - 1999
Science and Engineering Indicators 2000, NSF, USA
Note : 1. @ Provisional data
2. * Excludes Technicians
3. SET: Scientists Engineers & Technicians
4. Figures in parenthesis represent the year for which data was available
5. Not Available