National Science & Technology Management Information System (NSTMIS)


  • The national investment of R&D activities attained a level of Rs.12901.54 crores in 1998-99. The same is estimated to be Rs.15090.22 crores in 1999-2000 and Rs.17660.21 crores in 2000-01.
  • T0.81% of Gross National Product was devoted to R&D during 1998-99.
  • Sector-wise percentage share of national expenditure during 1998-99 was Central Government 62.5%, State Governments 8.0%, Higher Education 2.9%, Public Sector Industries 5.0% and Private Sector Industries 21.6%.
  • In the institutional Sector, about 18% of the total expenditure was spent on basic research, 40% on applied research, 33% on experimental development and the rest 9% on appropriate activities.
  • 89.4% of the expenditure incurred from government sources came from 12 major scientific agencies - CSIR, DRDO, DAE, DBT, DST, DOS, DOD, ICAR, ICMR, MIT, MNEs, MOEn and the rest came from other central ministries departments/public sector industries. Amongst the major scientific agencies, Defence Research and Development Organisation accounted for 31.8% of the expenditure..
  • State sector spent Rs.1026.54 crores on R&D activities during 1998-99. About 88% of the total investment on R&D activities by State sector was on development of agriculture and allied areas. R&D institutions located in the State off Gujarat, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh incurred more tthan one third of total State sector R&D expenditure.
  • Industrial sector spent Rs.3441.42 crores on R&D activities during 1998-99. The number of R&D units involved were 1,031 in the private sector and 160 in the public/joint sector besides 176 Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation(SIRO).
  • Industry spent 0.52% of their sales turnover on R&D in 1998-99.
  • The Extramural R&D support increased from Rs.186.48 crores in 1996-97 to Rs.349.84 crores in 1998-99. The Ministry off Information Technology (MIT) and Department of Science and Technology (DST) were the two agencies playing a major role in Extramural R&D funding..
  • Academic sector received 47% of the total Extramural R&D support during 1998-99.
  • Allocation for S&T increased from Rs.373 crores in the Fourth Plan to Rs.17,529 crores during the Eighth Plan. It is estimated to be of the order of Rs.25,529 crores during the Ninth Plan.
  • India's per capita R&D expenditure was Rs.103.26 (US$3.1) during 1998-99.
  • As on 1st April, 1998, nearly 3.08 lakhs personnel were employed in the R&D establishments in the country including in-house R&D units of public and private sector industries. 31.0% were performing R&D activities, 32.6% were performing auxiliary activities and rest 36.4% were providing administrative and non-technical support.
  • There were 9,701 women directly engaged in R&D activities.
  • India had 7.27 scientists, engineers and technicians (SET) per thousand population during 1999. Only 0.10 SET per thousand population were employed in R&D during 1998.
  • Doctorates in science from 68.4% off the total 5,608 S&T doctorates produced by the educational system in the country during 1998-99
  • 1800 patents were sealed in the year 1998-99. Out of which 645 Indian patents were sealed. The maximum number of patents filed by Indian were from the State of Maharashtra with a percentage share of 30.9%. United States of America topped the list off applications for patents filed in India by foreign countries with a share off 41.8%.
  • There were 220 universities/deemed universities, 11 institution of national importance and 11,397 colleges during 1998-99 imparting higher education in the country